Sometimes in life we just don't meet our own expectations, we fall short of the mark. In part, it's because of the way the "I want it now" culture has evolved. Credit cards, overdrafts, store cards etc. make it too easy to get out our depth . . . for some it can be a life and personality changing experience, but, is it really your fault?
Could it be an "Id" or "ego" thing?
I guess there are many people in life, whose circumstances have short-changed them, and, with a little help could do the right thing; right? The research below, although focusing on ethical behaviour, is likely linked to criminal behaviour by the nature of "one thing, leads to another"
Honest behaviour is much like sticking to a diet. When facing an ethical dilemma, being aware of the temptation before it happens and thinking about the long-term consequences of misbehaving could help more people do the right thing, according to a new study.
The study, "Anticipating and Resisting the Temptation to Behave Unethically," by University of Chicago Booth School of Business Behavioral Science and Marketing Professor Ayelet Fishbach and Rutgers Business School Assistant Professor Oliver J. Sheldon, was recently published in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. It is the first study to test how the two separate factors of identifying an ethical conflict and preemptively exercising self-control interact in shaping ethical decision-making.
In a series of experiments that included common ethical dilemmas, such as calling in sick to work and negotiating a home sale, the researchers found that two factors together promoted ethical behaviour: Participants who identified a potential ethical dilemma as connected to other similar incidents and who also anticipated the temptation to act unethically were more likely to behave honestly than participants who did not.
"Unethical behaviour is rampant across various domains ranging from business and politics to education and sports," said Fishbach. "Organizations seeking to improve ethical behaviour can do so by helping people recognize the cumulative impact of unethical acts and by providing warning cues for upcoming temptation."
In one experiment, business school students were divided into pairs as brokers for the buyer and seller of a historic New York brownstone. The dilemma: The seller wanted to preserve the property while the buyer wanted to demolish it and build a hotel. The brokers for the seller were told to only sell to a buyer who would save the brownstone, while the brokers for the buyer were told to conceal the buyer's plan to develop a hotel.
Before the negotiations began, half of the students were asked to recall a time when they cheated or bent the rules to get ahead. Only 45 per cent of those students thinking about their ethics ahead of time behaved unethically in the negotiations, while more than two-thirds, or 67 per cent, of the students who weren't reminded of an ethical temptation in advance, lied in the negotiations in order to close the deal.
In another experiment involving workplace scenarios, participants were less likely to say it is okay to steal office supplies, call into work sick when they aren't really ill, or intentionally work slowly to avoid additional tasks if they anticipated an ethical dilemma through a writing exercise in advance and if they considered a series of six ethical dilemmas all at once.
In other words, people are more likely to engage in unethical behaviour if they believe the act is an isolated incident and if they don't think about it ahead of time.
The results of the experiments have the potential to help policymakers, educators and employers devise strategies to encourage people to behave ethically. For example, a manager could control costs by emailing employees before a work trip to warn them against the temptation to inflate expenses. The notice could be even more effective if the manager reminded employees that the urge to exaggerate expenses is a temptation they will encounter repeatedly in the future.
The above story is based on materials provided by the University of Chicago Booth School of Business. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
O. J. Sheldon, A. Fishbach. Anticipating and Resisting the Temptation to Behave Unethically. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2015; DOI: 10.1177/0146167215586196